Great apes, including chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans are known for their remarkable cognitive abilities. These primates have been found to possess a wide range of mental skills such as problem-solving, tool use, communication and even self-awareness.
However, despite the growing body of research that has highlighted great ape intelligence, there are limitations to their reasoning abilities. The inability of great apes to reason abstractly is one major limitation that affects their cognitive performance. While these animals can solve problems based on observations they make in their environment or past experiences, they struggle with tasks that require them to reason beyond what they know or have seen before.
This constraint also limits their ability to anticipate future events and plan ahead effectively. In this article, we will explore some of the key limitations of great apes’ reasoning abilities and how these challenges impact our understanding of primate cognition.
The Cognitive Abilities Of Great Apes
The cognitive abilities of great apes have been widely studied due to their high level of similarity with humans. A comparative analysis between the two species has highlighted the evolutionary implications that led to the development of these abilities in both groups. Great apes possess remarkable skills in areas such as perception, memory, and communication, which are fundamental for their survival.
In terms of reasoning ability, however, there are some limitations observed in great apes. While they can understand cause-and-effect relationships and recognize patterns, their capacity for abstract thinking is limited compared to humans’. This means that while they can solve problems based on previously learned information or experience, they struggle when faced with novel situations that require more complex reasoning.
Furthermore, studies suggest that great apes’ social cognition may play a role in their problem-solving capabilities. For example, it’s been demonstrated that chimpanzees work better together than individually when solving tasks involving cooperation or coordination. This suggests that group dynamics might be an important factor influencing the success rates of great ape problem-solving attempts.
Overall, understanding the cognitive similarities and differences between humans and great apes allows us to appreciate our shared evolutionary history while also highlighting unique aspects of human intelligence. In the following section, we will explore more specifically how great apes approach problem-solving challenges.
The cognitive abilities of great apes are a topic of interest for researchers as they provide insight into the development and evolution of human cognition. Great apes, such as chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas have been shown to possess several cognitive skills similar to humans, including reasoning ability.
However, there are limitations in their reasoning capacity that restrict their problem-solving potential. One limitation is that great apes’ working memory can only hold a limited amount of information at any given time. This affects their ability to manipulate mental representations and solve problems with multiple steps. Additionally, great apes may struggle with abstract concepts or symbolic representation which limits their ability to reason about numbers or language-based tasks.
Despite these limitations, great apes still exhibit impressive problem-solving strategies when faced with challenges in their environment. They use trial-and-error methods coupled with social learning to acquire new skills like tool-use. Observational learning allows them to learn from others without direct experience themselves.
Cognitive development models suggest that the unique combination of genetic factors and environmental stimuli shape an individual’s cognitive capacities over time. For example, research has shown that early experiences play a critical role in the development of spatial reasoning among apes.
In conclusion, while great apes demonstrate remarkable abilities in some areas of reasoning such as problem-solving through observational learning and trial-and-error methods, there are also limitations due to restricted working memory capacity and difficulty processing abstract concepts or symbols. These findings highlight the importance of understanding variation in cognitive abilities across species within different contexts. The next section will explore further how great apes utilize tools in their daily lives despite these constraints on their reasoning ability.
Great apes are known for their impressive cognitive abilities, particularly in terms of problem-solving and tool use. However, despite their remarkable intelligence, there are still limitations to their reasoning skills. One such limitation is their ability to understand the concept of tool use beyond basic tasks.
While great apes have been observed using tools in the wild and in captivity, they often lack the ability to create more complex tools or modify existing ones for different purposes. For example, chimpanzees may use sticks to extract insects from trees but do not demonstrate an understanding of how to combine multiple tools to achieve a specific goal. This suggests that while great apes possess some level of innovation when it comes to tool use, there is room for improvement.
Evolutionary significance plays a role in shaping these limitations as well. Great apes did not evolve with the same pressures on their intellects as humans did during our evolutionary history. Therefore, while we share many similarities with our primate relatives, our cognitive abilities differ significantly due to divergent evolutionary paths.
Cultural transmission also affects great ape’s tool-use capabilities. While certain populations have developed unique techniques for utilizing tools (such as nut-cracking by chimpanzees), these behaviors are learned through observation rather than innate knowledge passed down genetically. As a result, certain groups may exhibit higher levels of sophistication when it comes to tool use compared to others within the same species.
In conclusion, while great apes possess impressive reasoning skills and demonstrate proficiency in using basic tools, their ability to understand more complex concepts related to tool manipulation is limited. Factors such as evolution and cultural transmission contribute to this limitation and highlight the need for further research into the cognitive abilities of non-human primates. In the next section about communication skills, we will explore another area where great apes’ cognitive abilities fall short – language acquisition and usage.
The limitations of great apes’ reasoning abilities are well-documented. However, their communication skills have been the focus of much research and debate as well.
Despite being able to use sign language and vocalizations to convey basic messages, they fall short when it comes to complex communication. Sign language has proved instrumental in understanding great ape communication patterns. Studies show that chimpanzees can learn over 300 signs, while orangutans and bonobos can recognize around 1000 words each. However, these primates struggle with putting together sentences, which limits their ability to express themselves fully through this medium.
Vocalizations also play a crucial role in primate communication but are similarly limited in conveying complex ideas. Apes produce grunts, screams, hoots, and other sounds primarily for mating calls or warning signals rather than nuanced conversations. Moreover, unlike human speech, these sounds cannot be broken down into distinct units like phonemes or syllables.
In conclusion, though great apes possess some level of communicative ability using sign language or vocalizations, there remain significant limitations compared to humans. Nonetheless, studying the nuances of primate communication provides fascinating insights into our evolutionary history and helps us understand how we differ from our closest living relatives.
Moving forward into exploring self-awareness among great apes reveals an equally intriguing area of study – one that highlights just how similar we may be despite our differences in cognitive capacity.
Self-Awareness plays an important role in reasoning, and it is often assumed that great apes possess this ability. However, research has shown that the level of self-awareness varies among different species of great apes.
For example, chimpanzees are known to recognize themselves in mirrors but orangutans have difficulty recognizing their own reflections. Neurological development could be one reason for the variation in self-awareness levels among great apes. Studies have suggested that brain size and complexity correlate with cognitive abilities such as self-awareness.
Chimpanzees, being more closely related to humans than other great apes, have larger brains and more complex neural networks which may explain why they perform better on tasks requiring self-recognition. The evolutionary significance of self-awareness cannot be understated.
It allows individuals to understand their place within a social hierarchy and make decisions based on how others perceive them. Self-awareness enables animals to interact with their environment in a more sophisticated way by allowing them to anticipate consequences of their actions.
In conclusion, while some great ape species exhibit higher levels of self-awareness than others, neurological development and evolutionary significance play crucial roles in shaping this ability across all primates. Understanding these factors can help us appreciate what makes humans unique compared to our closest living relatives.
Considering that great apes vary in their self-awareness abilities, it’s worth exploring whether this variation extends to other cognitive domains such as abstract reasoning.
4 reasons why studying the evolution of self-awareness is important:
Shed light on human cognition: By understanding the roots of self-awareness we can gain insights into how it evolved throughout history leading up to current human cognition.
Conservation efforts: Great Apes’ intelligence sets them apart from other animal groups so preserving populations could lead us towards greater conservation efforts.
Ethical considerations: As intelligent beings capable of thinking about ourselves (and potentially the world around us), realizing these emotional capacities means rethinking ethical treatment for many animals.
Social behavior implications: Knowing if an animal is self-aware will help us to better understand their social behaviors towards others, which can have implications for how we treat them in captivity or research settings.
Great apes, including orangutans, chimpanzees, and gorillas, are known for their impressive cognitive abilities. They have the capacity to learn new skills and communicate with each other using sign language or symbols. However, one area where these primates fall short is in abstract reasoning. While they possess some level of logical reasoning skills that help them navigate their environments effectively, they face limitations when it comes to solving problems beyond what they already know.
Neurological development plays a significant role in great ape’s ability to reason abstractly. Studies show that certain areas of the brain responsible for this type of thinking are less developed in apes than humans. For instance, researchers found differences in the prefrontal cortex of ape brains compared to human ones. This region plays an essential role in decision-making and problem-solving tasks that require higher-order cognition such as planning ahead.
Cross-species comparisons also reveal interesting insights into the limitations of great ape’s reasoning abilities. One example is the use of tools by different species. Chimpanzees can use sticks or stones to extract food from hard-to-reach places but do not demonstrate the same level of creativity as humans regarding tool making or modification. Humans have been observed creating complex machines like cars and computers – feats that are impossible for any primate.
In conclusion, while great apes exhibit some degree of logical reasoning capabilities, there remain inherent challenges with reasoning beyond known information due to neurological development constraints and cross-species comparisons revealing notable disparities between human and non-human animals’ intellectual capacities. The next section will examine specific challenges faced by both humans and non-humans concerning their ability to reason beyond known information without relying on intuition or prior knowledge alone.
Challenges With Reasoning Beyond Known Information
Great apes are known for their impressive cognitive abilities, particularly in the realm of reasoning. However, there are limitations to this ability that must be taken into account.
One major challenge is the extent to which great apes can reason beyond what they already know or have experienced. Reasoning in captivity presents a unique set of challenges for great apes. Often living in artificial environments far removed from their natural habitats, these animals may lack opportunities to learn about new and unfamiliar situations.
This restricted exposure limits their ability to use past experiences as a basis for making predictions about future events. Furthermore, evolutionary history plays a role in shaping the limitations of great ape reasoning abilities. Unlike humans who evolved to rely heavily on abstract thinking skills, great apes’ evolution has favored more concrete problem-solving techniques focused on immediate needs such as finding food and shelter.
This difference in evolutionary paths likely contributes to their limited capacity for reasoning outside of known information. In conclusion, while great apes possess remarkable cognitive abilities, there are inherent limitations that prevent them from easily reasoning beyond what they already know or have experienced.
The combination of living in captive environments and an evolutionary history that emphasizes practical problem solving further compounds these challenges. These factors highlight the need for continued research into how we can better understand and support the cognitive development of our closest animal relatives.
Moving forward, it is essential to recognize another significant limitation: great apes’ limited capacity for anticipating future events accurately.
Limited Capacity For Anticipating Future Events
Anticipation limitations are another aspect of great apes’ reasoning abilities that have been observed. While they may be able to solve problems and make decisions in the present moment, anticipating future events is a more challenging task for them. This is partly due to their limited cognitive development factors, such as working memory capacity and attention span.
Great apes often struggle with holding multiple pieces of information in their minds simultaneously, which can hinder their ability to plan ahead effectively. For example, if an ape wants to get food from a particular location but needs a tool to reach it, they may forget where the tool was last placed or become distracted by other stimuli before retrieving it. As a result, they may fail to anticipate potential obstacles or delays that could prevent them from achieving their goal.
Another factor contributing to anticipation limitations in great apes is their tendency towards immediate gratification. Like humans, apes prefer shorter-term rewards over longer-term ones, even if the latter would ultimately yield greater benefits. This can lead them to overlook opportunities for planning ahead or delay making choices until it’s too late.
Despite these challenges, some research suggests that great apes may still possess some degree of foresight and planning ability. For instance, studies have shown that chimpanzees will sometimes save tools for later use or choose routes based on anticipated obstacles rather than taking the shortest path available. However, these behaviors appear to be relatively rare and dependent on specific circumstances rather than being consistent across individuals or species.
In light of these findings, it seems clear that great apes face difficulties with planning ahead and anticipating future events compared to humans and some other animals. While they certainly possess impressive problem-solving skills within certain contexts, their cognitive limitations make long-range thinking a much more challenging task for them overall.
The next section will explore this topic further by examining how great apes’ executive function deficits contribute to poor planning abilities without using ‘step’.
Difficulties With Planning Ahead
While great apes have been shown to possess impressive cognitive abilities, they still face limitations in their reasoning skills. One area in which these limitations are particularly evident is in their ability to plan ahead.
Decision making challenges arise for great apes when it comes to planning for the future. For example, studies have revealed that captive chimpanzees struggle with delayed gratification tasks, where they must choose between a smaller immediate reward or a larger reward after waiting for some time. This inability to resist temptation and opt for long-term gains can hinder their success in various contexts.
Implications for captive apes are significant as well, since many of them live in environments where there is little opportunity to engage in natural behaviors that would enable them to develop better foresight and problem-solving skills. Failure to do so may lead not only to unsatisfactory living conditions but also increased stress levels and behavioral issues among captive individuals.
In light of decision-making difficulties faced by great apes, more research needs to focus on understanding the cognitive mechanisms involved in this process. By identifying underlying factors contributing to these limitations, we can work towards developing effective strategies aimed at improving their quality of life both in captivity and the wild.
Despite facing these challenges with planning ahead, differences exist within species regarding cognitive abilities.
Differences In Cognitive Abilities Among Great Apes Species
Difficulties with planning ahead can be a common issue among great apes. However, this is not the only limitation of their reasoning abilities. Cognitive differences between species also play a significant role in determining how well they are able to reason and solve problems.
Species comparison studies have shown that there are notable differences in cognitive abilities among different great ape species. For example, chimpanzees tend to outperform orangutans on tasks involving tool use, while orangutans excel at spatial memory tasks. Additionally, gorillas have been observed to have greater attentional control than other great apes.
Despite these differences, all great apes share certain limitations when it comes to reasoning ability. One major factor is their reliance on concrete information rather than abstract concepts. Great apes struggle with understanding hypothetical scenarios and often require direct experience or physical demonstration to comprehend new concepts.
To better understand the varying levels of cognitive abilities among great apes, we can take a closer look at some specific examples:
|Chimpanzees||Tool use, social cognition||Difficulty with abstract concepts|
|Orangutans||Spatial memory||Limited problem-solving skills|
|Gorillas||Attentional control||Poor working memory|
In conclusion, although great apes are highly intelligent animals capable of complex problem-solving and communication, there are still limitations to their reasoning abilities. These include difficulties with abstract thinking and an overreliance on concrete information. By comparing the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of different species through detailed research studies such as those mentioned above, we can gain valuable insights into how environmental factors may impact cognitive development in these animals.
Role Of Environmental Factors In Cognitive Development
While great apes are known for their impressive cognitive abilities, there are certain limitations to their reasoning skills. However, it is important to note that these limitations may not solely be attributed to genetic factors but can also be influenced by environmental factors.
Studies have shown that environmental influences play a crucial role in the cognitive development of primates. One major environmental factor that affects primate cognition is socialization. Social interaction with other members of the species has been found to enhance cognitive development in great apes. For instance, captive chimpanzees who were raised in groups showed better problem-solving skills than those who were reared alone. Additionally, exposure to complex environments such as natural habitats and enrichment activities has been linked with improved cognitive performance in non-human primates.
Another influential environmental factor is diet. The nutritional quality and quantity of food provided to great apes affect their brain function and overall health. Malnourished individuals tend to exhibit developmental delays and inferior cognitive abilities compared to well-nourished ones. Moreover, research shows that supplementation with key nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids enhances memory and learning capabilities in both humans and animals.
In addition to socialization and nutrition, early life experiences also shape primate cognition. Traumatic events during infancy or childhood have detrimental effects on normal brain development leading to impaired cognitive functioning later in life. On the other hand, positive early-life experiences such as nurturing care from caregivers promote healthy brain development resulting in superior cognitive outcomes.
These findings underscore the importance of considering environmental influences when studying primate cognition since they impact various aspects of an individual’s mental processes including learning, memory, attention, perception, decision-making among others. Therefore understanding how different environments affect primate cognition can help us gain insights into human evolution and inform conservation efforts aimed at protecting endangered primates’ habitats worldwide.
Implications For Understanding Primate Cognition
The limitations of great apes’ ability to reason have important implications for understanding primate cognition. While they possess certain cognitive abilities that are similar to humans, their reasoning skills are limited and fall short in comparison to human capabilities. This can be attributed partly to the fact that they do not possess language as advanced as humans, which is crucial for abstract thought.
Moreover, ethical concerns arise when studying primates since it requires experimentation on live subjects. There is a growing concern about the ethicality of conducting invasive research on animals and violating their rights as living beings. Additionally, cultural influences may also impact how we perceive the intelligence of primates. For example, Western cultures tend to view these animals through a lens of scientific objectivity, while other cultures such as Indigenous communities see them more holistically with spiritual significance.
Despite these challenges, there remains much potential for future research on great ape reasoning. One promising area of investigation involves using non-invasive methods like observational studies or computer simulations to better understand how these animals think and solve problems without having to resort to experiments involving live subjects. Furthermore, researchers could explore whether different species exhibit unique cognitive profiles based on environmental factors or social structures within groups.
Overall, understanding primate cognition has significant implications for improving our knowledge of human evolution and behavior. However, this must be done ethically and with sensitivity towards cultural differences in order to ensure accurate representation and interpretation of results obtained from studies conducted on these intelligent creatures.
Potential For Future Research On Great Ape Reasoning
Future Implications of Great Ape Reasoning Studies
The limitations of great apes’ ability for reasoning have been well-documented in previous studies. However, these findings can open up new avenues for future research that could potentially lead to a deeper understanding of the cognitive abilities and limitations of non-human primates. Such research is vital not only because it helps us understand our evolutionary history but also because it has practical implications for conservation efforts.
One potential avenue for future research on great ape reasoning is the use of novel experimental methods that allow researchers to overcome some of the limitations associated with traditional testing paradigms. For instance, virtual reality technology can provide more naturalistic settings where great apes can demonstrate their problem-solving skills without being constrained by artificial laboratory conditions.
Another important area for future research is the exploration of individual variations in cognitive abilities among different species and subspecies of great apes. By identifying such differences, researchers may be able to better understand the evolution of cognition across primate lineages and predict how certain populations might adapt to changing environmental conditions.
Finally, ethical considerations will continue to play an increasingly important role in shaping future great ape reasoning studies. Researchers must always consider animal welfare concerns when designing experiments involving captive animals or those living in their natural habitats. As such, developing alternative methods that minimize any negative impact on the animals involved should remain a top priority within this field.
Overall, while there are still many unanswered questions regarding great ape reasoning capabilities, ongoing research using innovative techniques and methodologies provides hope that we will gain a greater appreciation for the extent and variation in cognitive abilities found among all primates.
Ethical Considerations For Studying Great Apes
Potential for Future Research on Great Ape Reasoning has highlighted the amazing intellectual abilities of great apes, but it is essential to note that their reasoning also comes with some limitations. One such limitation is that they cannot think beyond the present moment as humans do. This means that when presented with a problem, great apes tend to focus only on what’s in front of them and not consider long-term consequences or potential future events.
Another significant limitation of great ape reasoning is their inability to reason abstractly. They have trouble understanding hypothetical situations, which are crucial for making predictions about the world around us. Moreover, while they can understand cause-and-effect relationships between two things happening simultaneously, they struggle to comprehend more complex causal chains. For instance, if something happens now that causes an event later, great apes may not be able to connect these dots.
The ethical considerations for studying great apes must always remain at the forefront of any research agenda focused on them. Conservation impact is one such consideration because many species of great apes face extinction due to habitat loss and poaching. Thus, researchers need to ensure that their studies don’t inadvertently harm these animals or disrupt already dwindling populations by encroaching upon their natural habitats.
Research ethics are equally important because scientists must respect the rights of these creatures who share our planet and possess remarkable intelligence themselves. Researchers should avoid causing unnecessary pain or suffering during experiments and prioritize welfare above all else. Ultimately, this will require collaborations among animal care professionals like veterinarians and conservationists alongside primatologists.
In conclusion: a holistic view of great ape intelligence requires acknowledging both their incredible cognitive capabilities along with inherent limitations in reasoning ability while considering how we can ethically study these magnificent animals without harming them or disrupting their lives unnecessarily. By doing so, we can learn from them valuable insights into our own evolutionary history while ensuring their survival for generations yet unborn.
Conclusion: A Holistic View Of Great Ape Intelligence
The limitations of great apes’ ability for reasoning are not to be overlooked. While they possess impressive cognitive abilities, their capacity for abstract thinking and problem-solving is limited compared to humans’. This fact should not diminish the importance or evolutionary significance of their intelligence.
Comparative analysis between human and ape cognition reveals that while both share some commonalities in information processing, there are significant differences as well.
Language is one such aspect where humans excel beyond anything an ape can achieve. Additionally, humans have a larger prefrontal cortex than apes, which allows them to engage in complex planning and decision-making processes with greater accuracy.
Despite these limitations, studying great ape intelligence provides valuable insights into our own evolution as a species. The parallels we see between our two sets of cognitive abilities offer clues about how different aspects of higher-order thinking may have evolved over time.
Moreover, understanding the limits of apes’ mental faculties helps us appreciate the unique nature of human thought and its potential for further development.
In conclusion, it is clear that great apes possess remarkable cognitive abilities but also face certain limitations when it comes to more advanced forms of reasoning. While this doesn’t detract from their value as intelligent beings, it does highlight the distinctions between our respective intellectual capacities.
Comparative analysis offers important opportunities to learn about ourselves through studying other species’ evolutionary significance.
Frequently Asked Questions
What Are The Physical Characteristics Of Great Apes?
Great apes are a fascinating group of animals, closely related to humans in evolutionary history. These primates have several physical characteristics that distinguish them from other mammals, such as their opposable thumbs and ability to walk on two legs for short distances.
In addition to these traits, great apes possess impressive cognitive abilities, including problem-solving skills and the capacity for tool use. However, despite their remarkable intelligence, there are limitations to great apes’ reasoning abilities. For example, research has shown that they struggle with abstract concepts and may not fully understand cause-and-effect relationships in certain situations.
Nonetheless, studying the physical and cognitive capabilities of great apes can provide valuable insights into our own evolution and development as a species.
What Is The Diet Of Great Apes?
Great apes have a varied diet that mainly consists of fruits, leaves, and insects. They have complex foraging habits, such as using tools to extract food from hard-to-reach places, which is indicative of their cognitive abilities.
Their nutritional requirements are met through consuming different types of vegetation and protein-rich sources like termites or ants.
However, despite their impressive dietary adaptations, great apes’ reasoning skills have limitations when compared to humans. These limitations include difficulties in abstract thinking and problem-solving beyond simple tasks.
Thus, while they excel at certain cognitive domains related to survival instincts like foraging and communication, their ability for advanced reasoning falls short.
What Are The Social Structures Of Great Apes?
Great apes, including chimpanzees and gorillas, have complex social structures that are characterized by dominance hierarchies.
These hierarchies are established through various communication methods such as vocalizations, facial expressions, body postures, and gestures.
Dominant individuals typically receive priority access to resources like food and mates, while subordinates may be excluded or face aggression if they try to challenge the hierarchy.
While great apes exhibit sophisticated cognitive abilities in certain domains like tool use and problem-solving, their ability for abstract reasoning is limited compared to humans.
This can constrain their ability to negotiate complex social situations or anticipate long-term consequences of their behavior.
How Do Great Apes Adapt To Their Environment?
Great apes are known for their remarkable cognitive abilities that allow them to adapt and survive in various environments.
However, these adaptive behaviors also pose significant cognitive challenges, which limit their reasoning capacity.
For instance, great apes often exhibit rigid behavioral patterns when faced with novel stimuli or situations, leading to limited exploration and learning opportunities.
Additionally, they struggle with abstract thinking and conceptualization of complex ideas, making it challenging for them to understand cause-and-effect relationships.
Despite these limitations, great apes continue to amaze researchers with their problem-solving skills and ability to innovate new solutions to environmental challenges.
What Is The Lifespan Of Great Apes?
Great apes, such as chimpanzees and orangutans, have a life expectancy that ranges from 30 to 50 years in the wild.
However, they can live much longer under captive conditions, with some individuals reaching up to their early 60s or even older.
Unfortunately, great apes also experience cognitive decline as they age, which affects their ability to reason and solve problems.
This decline may be due to changes in brain structure and function over time, although more research is needed to fully understand the underlying mechanisms.
Despite these limitations, great apes continue to fascinate researchers and the public alike with their remarkable intelligence and complex social behaviors.
Great apes are known for their remarkable cognitive abilities, including reasoning and problem-solving skills. However, despite these impressive capabilities, there are certain limitations to their ability for reasoning.
One of the main constraints is their reliance on past experiences rather than abstract thinking. Great apes tend to solve problems based on what they have learned in the past rather than applying new knowledge or strategies.
Another limitation is that great apes struggle with tasks that require them to consider multiple variables simultaneously. They also often lack a clear understanding of cause-and-effect relationships.
Additionally, while great apes can communicate using various vocalizations and gestures, they do not possess language as humans do, which limits their capacity for complex communication.
In conclusion, although great apes exhibit significant cognitive abilities, such as memory and tool use, they face certain limitations when it comes to reasoning and abstract thinking. These restrictions may be attributed to differences in brain structure compared to humans or other evolutionary factors. Nonetheless, continued research into these fascinating animals could lead to a deeper understanding of animal cognition overall.