How Many Ribs Do Great Apes Have?

The great apes are a group of primates that include chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and bonobos. They are among the closest living relatives to humans and share many anatomical similarities with us.

One such similarity is the number of ribs they possess. However, there has been much debate over the exact number of ribs in great apes and how it compares to humans.

Determining the number of ribs in great apes has important implications for understanding their evolutionary history and relationships with other primates. It also sheds light on potential differences in respiratory function between humans and our primate cousins.

In this article, we will explore the current scientific knowledge regarding how many ribs great apes have and what insights it offers into their biology.

An Overview Of Great Apes

Great apes are a diverse group of primates that share many similarities with humans. They inhabit regions across Africa and Asia, including dense forests, open savannas, and mountainous areas. Some great ape species include gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and gibbons. These intelligent creatures have been studied for decades due to their remarkable cognitive abilities.

Great apes exhibit a wide range of diets that vary by species and habitat. Gorillas primarily consume plant matter such as leaves, fruit, stems, and bark. Chimpanzees have a more varied diet which includes insects, small mammals like monkeys or antelopes, birds’ eggs as well as fruits and nuts. Orangutans also eat mainly plants but prefer ripe fruit when it’s available in abundance within their rainforest habitats. Bonobos usually feed on terrestrial vegetation along with some fruits from the trees while Gibbons mostly rely on fruit consumption.

Moreover, great apes share several physical characteristics with humans such as opposable thumbs enabling them to grasp objects firmly; similarly shaped hands suitable for tool-making; forward-facing eyes providing depth perception necessary for accurate movement through branches or ground-level surroundings; and large brains relative to body size indicating advanced cognitive abilities compared to most other animals.

In addition to these shared physical traits between great apes and humans is our complex social behavior resulting from living in groups where communication skills play an important role in maintaining relationships among members of the same community.

In contrast to solitary life observed in some primate species like orangutans who only briefly interact during mating season or mother-infant bonding timescale before separation occurs once again until next pregnancy cycle commences – this highlights how much we can learn about ourselves not just biologically but also psychologically by studying these fascinating beings closely.

Similarities Between Great Apes And Humans

Great apes are a group of primates that include orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos. These animals share many similarities with humans in terms of anatomy and behavior. Comparing their anatomy to ours is particularly interesting as it reveals both the differences and similarities between our species.

One significant difference between great apes and humans is their rib structure. Humans have 12 pairs of ribs while great apes typically have 13 pairs. This extra set provides additional support for the large shoulder blades found in these animals. Additionally, great ape ribs tend to be longer than those found in humans, allowing them to accommodate their larger organs and provide more stability during movement.

Despite these structural differences, the basic function of ribs remains the same across all species – protecting vital internal organs such as the heart and lungs from injury or trauma. However, understanding the exact number and arrangement of ribs can provide valuable insights into evolutionary relationships among different groups of animals.

In summary, comparing anatomical structures like rib count highlights both the commonalities and unique adaptations present in different species. While there may be variations in skeletal features between humans and great apes, ultimately they serve similar purposes – ensuring survival through protection of crucial internal organs.

The importance of rib count therefore extends beyond just identifying physical characteristics; it contributes to our broader understanding of how life has evolved over time.

The Importance Of Rib Count

The rib count of great apes is a subject of interest to many researchers in the fields of biology, anatomy and taxonomy. Rib count has been used as an important character for taxonomic classification within primates. Scientists have studied differences in rib count among different species of great apes such as gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans and humans to understand their evolutionary relationships.

Although all great apes are expected to have 12 pairs of ribs like humans, there may be variations in the number of ribs between different populations or even individuals. These variations could arise from genetic mutations or environmental factors during development. For instance, some studies suggest that African chimpanzees tend to have one more pair of ribs than their counterparts residing in West Africa.

Furthermore, identifying possible variations in the rib count among different populations can help determine whether they belong to separate species or subspecies. This information is crucial for understanding the evolutionary history and diversity amongst these animals.

In addition, knowing the normal range of rib counts within a population can aid veterinarians when diagnosing diseases related to organs located near the ribcage. The role of rib count in taxonomy highlights its importance in studying primate evolution and diversity. Although it seems trivial, this small anatomical feature provides valuable insights into the phylogenetic relationship between different species and populations.

The next section will delve deeper into historical studies on great ape rib count and how they have contributed towards our current understanding.

Historical Studies On Great Ape Rib Count

The study of great ape rib count has been a topic of interest for many years. Historical studies have focused on examining the morphology of ribs in extant primates and using paleontological evidence to infer the number of ribs present in extinct species.

One early study by Osman Hill examined the morphology of gorilla, chimpanzee, orangutan, and gibbon ribs to determine their similarities and differences. He found that all four species had 12 thoracic vertebrae and therefore likely had 12 pairs of ribs like humans.

Another notable historical study was conducted by Charles Oxnard in the 1970s. He used CT scans to examine fossil specimens of Dryopithecus, an extinct species closely related to modern apes. Through his analysis, Oxnard determined that Dryopithecus likely had 13 pairs of ribs instead of the 12 seen in living apes.

Other researchers have also looked at the relationship between rib count and body size in great apes. One such study found that larger-bodied apes tend to have more ribs than smaller ones, possibly due to increased demand for respiratory function.

These historical studies provide important groundwork for understanding great ape rib count today. By examining both living species and fossils, we can gain insights into how these animals evolved over time and how variations in rib morphology may relate to other aspects of anatomy or behavior.

Current research continues to build upon this foundation, seeking new ways to explore questions about great ape physiology and evolution through the lens of rib count.

Current Research On Great Ape Rib Count

Historical studies on great ape rib count have provided valuable insights into the evolution of these primates.

According to fossil evidence, the earliest known apes had a thoracic cage that was similar in structure and number of vertebrae to modern-day monkeys.

However, as apes evolved, their ribcage underwent significant changes to accommodate more upright posture and larger body size.

Rib evolution in great apes is a complex process involving multiple factors such as locomotion, diet, and anatomy.

For instance, orangutans have fewer ribs than other great apes due to their arboreal lifestyle and limited need for respiratory expansion during terrestrial movements.

On the other hand, gorillas have 13 pairs of ribs like humans but with broader curvature to support their massive chest muscles required for knuckle-walking.

Recent research has shed light on chimpanzee rib count which has long been debated by scientists.

While some early studies suggested that chimpanzees may have an additional pair of ribs compared to humans or bonobos, newer findings dispute this claim.

In fact, genetic analysis of chimp DNA reveals that they share the same basic body plan as all other hominids including humans- with 12 sets of ribs and seven cervical vertebrae.

In conclusion, understanding great ape rib count is crucial not only for evolutionary biology but also for comparative anatomy and biomedical research.

By comparing different species’ thoracic structures across time and space we can learn about how environmental pressures shaped our ancestors’ bodies over millions of years.

Furthermore, knowing the normal range of variation within each species can help diagnose diseases or abnormalities affecting human patients today.

Chimpanzee Rib Count

The number of ribs in great apes can vary depending on the species.

For instance, chimpanzees have a different rib count compared to humans. While humans typically have 12 pairs of ribs, chimpanzees may have up to 13 pairs, with some individuals having only 11 or even 14 pairs.

Rib count variation among great apes is likely due to several factors.

One possible explanation is genetic differences between species that influence skeletal development.

Additionally, environmental factors such as diet and physical activity could also play a role in shaping rib morphology.

Interestingly, rib count variation within a single population has been observed in multiple primate species.

This suggests that individual variability may be a significant factor influencing rib count.

Further research into this area could help elucidate the mechanisms underlying rib development and evolution across primates.

Understanding the factors affecting rib count in great apes is crucial for interpreting their anatomy and evolutionary history accurately.

Next, we will explore the variations in gorilla rib counts and how they differ from other great ape populations.

Gorilla Rib Count

Chimpanzees, as members of the great ape family, have a unique rib morphology that differs from humans. These primates possess 24 ribs in total, with twelve pairs attached to their thoracic vertebrae and one pair of floating ribs at the bottom of their rib cage. However, this is not true for all great apes.

Gorilla rib count varies widely between individual specimens due to differences in size and age. Adult male gorillas can have up to 19 or more pairs of ribs while females typically exhibit fewer ribs overall. Additionally, juvenile gorillas may have different numbers of ribs than adult individuals due to developmental variation.

Despite variations in number, gorilla rib morphology remains relatively constant throughout development and across sexes. Gorilla rib cages are much wider than those of chimpanzees and humans which allows them to support greater upper body strength necessary for brute force exertion such as climbing trees or fighting off predators.

Understanding the intricacies of great ape rib counts and morphologies helps researchers comprehend how these animals move and evolve over time. By contrast, orangutan rib count has been less studied in detail but still presents an interesting avenue for future exploration into primate anatomy.

Orangutan Rib Count

Orangutans belong to the family of great apes, and a fundamental aspect of their anatomy is their skeletal system.

The skeletal structure of an orangutan is composed of 206 bones, including the rib cage.

The rib cage of an orangutan is composed of 12 pairs of ribs and the sternum.

The rib count of an orangutan in the wild is unknown, as it is difficult to assess.

However, studies conducted on captive orangutans have suggested that their rib count is similar to that of other great apes, with 12 pairs of ribs.

Further research is needed to confirm the exact rib count of orangutans in the wild.

Orangutan Anatomy

Orangutans are known for their distinctive physical features, such as their long arms and reddish-brown fur. However, the anatomy of these great apes also includes a unique rib structure that sets them apart from other primates.

Orangutans have 12 pairs of ribs, just like humans, but they differ in shape and size. The first eight pairs of orangutan ribs are attached to the sternum by cartilage, while the remaining four pairs are loosely connected to the spine. This allows for greater flexibility and mobility when climbing or swinging through trees, which is essential to an orangutan’s behavior in its natural habitat.

The curvature of their ribs also enables orangutans to expand their chest cavity more fully during breathing, allowing for increased oxygen intake. Unfortunately, orangutan habitat loss due to deforestation and human encroachment has put these animals at risk of extinction.

As a result, it is crucial to study and understand every aspect of their biology and physiology, including their rib count and structure. By doing so, we can gain insights into how best to protect these magnificent creatures from further harm. In conclusion, the unique rib structure of orangutans plays a vital role in enabling them to thrive in their natural environment.

Their twelve pairs of ribs provide both flexibility and enhanced respiratory function necessary for survival. With increasing threats to their habitats caused by human activity, understanding orangutan anatomy becomes even more important for conservation efforts aimed at protecting these intelligent primates from extinction.

Skeletal Structure

Orangutans’ unique rib structure is just one example of the fascinating anatomical variations found in these great apes. Another aspect worth exploring is their skeletal structure, which has significant evolutionary implications.

For instance, orangutan arms are much longer than their legs, a feature that reflects their arboreal lifestyle and makes them highly adapted for swinging through trees. Such adaptations suggest an ancient lineage with a distant common ancestor shared by all primates.

Moreover, the cranial morphology of orangutans also differs from other great apes due to their diet. As frugivores who consume fruit pulp instead of tough leaves or fibrous stems, they have evolved powerful jaws and smaller molars to accommodate this dietary preference.

Understanding these nuances can provide valuable insights into how orangutans have evolved over time and how they manage to survive in challenging environments. By studying their anatomy thoroughly, we can gain a better understanding of these magnificent creatures and help protect them from extinction caused by human activities such as deforestation.

In conclusion, orangutan skeletal structures offer many clues about their evolutionary history and ecological niche. The anatomical variations present in these animals reflect millions of years of natural selection for traits that allow them to thrive in specific habitats.

It is imperative that we continue to study orangutans’ biology and physiology carefully so that we can safeguard this species’ future successfully.

Rib Count In Captivity

Orangutan rib count has been a topic of interest for researchers due to the unique structure that sets them apart from other great apes.

However, while studying orangutans in captivity, another aspect worth exploring is how their rib count compares to wild populations.

Ethical considerations must be taken into account when conducting this research as it involves invasive procedures such as X-rays.

Comparing captive orangutan rib counts to those found in wild populations can provide valuable insights into how captivity affects these animals’ anatomy and physiology.

It could also shed light on whether environmental factors such as diet or exercise impact rib development.

This information would be useful not only for understanding orangutans but also for improving their care during captivity.

It is essential to note that any comparison between captive and wild orangutan rib counts should consider individual variations within each population.

Factors like age, sex, and health conditions could affect an animal’s bone structure, making direct comparisons challenging.

Therefore, researchers must use appropriate statistical methods that account for these variables to draw accurate conclusions.

In conclusion, investigating orangutan rib count in captivity presents ethical considerations but may offer valuable insights into their biology and care needs.

Comparing these findings with those observed in wild populations can help us understand better how environment influences anatomical development in these primates.

As our knowledge of orangutans continues to grow, we can implement strategies to protect them effectively both in the wild and in captivity.

Bonobo Rib Count

The rib count of great apes may vary, and bonobos are no exception. Bonobo rib structure is similar to that of other primates, including humans. The main function of the ribs in all mammals is to protect vital organs such as the heart and lungs. However, differences in rib count among bonobos and other great apes exist.

The average number of ribs in a bonobo ranges from 12 to 13 pairs or 24 to 26 individual bones. This count is comparable to most other great apes like chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. Nevertheless, some studies have reported variations in the number of ribs depending on age and sex.

For instance, male bonobos tend to have more massive thoracic cavities than females due to sexual dimorphism. Interestingly, there are significant differences between human and great ape rib counts. On average, adult humans have 12 pairs or 24 individual ribs compared to the typical range for great apes mentioned earlier (12-14 pairs).

Moreover, some rare cases report individuals with extra or missing ribs—a condition called cervical or lumbar rib syndrome. These discrepancies can result from genetic mutations during embryonic development. In summary, bonobo rib count falls within the expected range for most great apes despite some variation by age and gender.

Comparing this data with human anatomy reveals a stark contrast since our species typically has fewer but larger ribs overall. Understanding these subtle anatomical differences provides insight into primate evolution and serves as an essential tool when diagnosing medical abnormalities related to chest trauma or congenital defects involving the skeletal system’s axial skeleton.

Comparing Great Ape And Human Rib Count

Comparing bone structure and skeletal adaptations between great apes and humans is an intriguing field of study. One of the main differences between these two groups lies in their rib count. Humans have 12 pairs, while most great apes typically have 13 pairs of ribs.

This variation in rib number has significant implications for understanding evolutionary history. It suggests that at some point during hominid evolution, a reduction occurred in the number of ribs from 13 to 12 pairs. This adaptation may have allowed for further changes in other areas such as increased lung capacity or upright posture.

Comparing other aspects of bone structure also reveals fascinating insights into human and great ape evolution. For example, humans possess relatively shorter arms than expected given our body size when compared to great apes’ longer arms. This indicates that early hominids underwent changes related to locomotion, leading to a shift away from reliance on arm movement towards bipedalism.

These skeletal adaptations demonstrate how studying anatomical features can provide valuable information about past evolutionary events. Further research into comparative anatomy will continue to yield new discoveries about the intricate relationships between various species and their shared evolutionary histories.

With this knowledge, we gain a deeper understanding not only of our own place within the animal kingdom but also of how all living organisms are connected through common ancestry.

Implications For Evolutionary History

The number of ribs in great apes is an intriguing feature that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for decades.

The human ribcage consists of 12 pairs of ribs, while many other mammals have different numbers, ranging from as few as one to as many as 25.

Interestingly, all great apes share a common characteristic: they possess an additional pair of ribs compared to humans and most other mammals.

The presence of this extra pair of ribs in great apes may provide some adaptive advantages. For instance, it may increase the size and strength of the chest cavity, which could enable greater lung expansion during breathing. This adaptation would be beneficial during periods of high physical exertion or when oxygen availability is limited. Additionally, having more ribs may reduce the likelihood of injury to vital organs such as the heart and lungs by providing additional protection.

Phylogenetic relationships among great ape species can shed light on how this trait evolved over time. Studies indicate that orangutans have a higher number of thoracic vertebrae than other great apes, suggesting that they are ancestral to chimpanzees and gorillas who have lost one pair since their divergence from orangutan ancestors.

Humans also appear to have lost one pair after diverging from chimpanzee ancestors but before their lineage split off from gorilla ancestry.

In summary, studying the number of ribs in great apes provides insights into their evolutionary history and potential adaptations related to respiratory function. Understanding these characteristics helps us better comprehend our own biological origins and unique features as a species. The next section will explore further implications for respiratory function beyond simply possessing more ribs.

Implications For Respiratory Function

Rib count evolution among great apes has been a topic of interest for evolutionary biologists and paleoanthropologists. The number of ribs in humans is 12, whereas it ranges from 13 to 17 in other primates, with most having either 12 or 13 pairs of ribs.

This variation can be attributed to the different respiratory demands across species. Great apes are known to have larger lungs than humans relative to their body size, which may require additional rib segments for proper lung expansion during breathing.

It is believed that the increase in rib count occurred early on in primate evolution as a result of selection pressures for improved respiratory function. For instance, some experts suggest that increasing the number of ribs could have allowed our ancestors to breathe more efficiently while climbing trees or running on all fours. Additionally, this change may have facilitated increased endurance during physical activity by improving oxygen uptake and delivery throughout the body.

Respiratory adaptation has played an important role in human evolution over time. As we evolved into bipedal hominins and began walking upright on two legs, our bodies underwent significant changes in several anatomical systems including those related to respiration. Our thoracic cavity became narrower and deeper compared to our ape ancestors, allowing us to take longer strides without interfering with arm movement during locomotion.

In summary, rib count evolution among great apes provides insight into how natural selection has shaped respiratory function over time. Despite the evidence suggesting that increasing rib counts conferred benefits such as improved endurance and efficient oxygen uptake, there remain questions about its precise mechanism and timing within primate evolution. Future research should focus on elucidating these factors further and exploring potential limitations associated with increases in rib count beyond a certain threshold.

Limitations And Future Directions

Despite the progress made in understanding the anatomical features of great apes, there are limitations to this field of study.

First, ethical considerations limit research on great apes as they share many similarities with humans, raising concerns about animal welfare. Therefore, it is important to conduct studies that respect their dignity while providing valuable scientific information.

Secondly, potential biases may influence results when studying great ape anatomy. Due to limited sample sizes or an incomplete fossil record, researchers may make assumptions based on incomplete data sets leading to inaccurate conclusions. Additionally, cultural factors such as language barriers can impact findings if not appropriately addressed during cross-cultural research.

Looking forward, future studies should aim for larger sample sizes and more comprehensive datasets to mitigate these limitations. This includes interdisciplinary collaborations between biological anthropologists and other fields such as computer science or engineering.

To paint a picture of how far we have come in understanding great ape anatomy, here are some notable milestones:

  • In 2005, scientists discovered that orangutans have uniquely flexible shoulder joints allowing them to swing from tree branches.
  • Researchers recently used CT scans and 3D printing technology to create a replica of Lucy’s (an early hominin) skeleton revealing new insights into human evolution.
  • Studies have also shown that chimpanzees possess superior working memory compared to humans which has implications for cognitive neuroscience research.

In conclusion, despite the recent advancements in studying great ape anatomy, there are still limitations regarding ethical considerations and potential biases. Moving forward requires interdisciplinary collaboration and using advanced technologies like CT scans and 3D printing. The next step involves exploring further avenues towards better comprehending our evolutionary history through continued exploration of primate biology.


It is evident that the number of ribs in great apes varies among species. While chimpanzees have thirteen pairs, gorillas and orangutans possess twelve pairs. Gibbons, on the other hand, may have either eleven or twelve pairs depending on their geographic location. The reason for this variation remains unclear.

Future research could investigate the evolutionary significance of rib count differences among great ape species. One possibility is that changes in rib counts are related to variations in diet or locomotion patterns. Further studies might explore whether certain environmental pressures such as climate change or habitat fragmentation can trigger a change in rib counts over time.

There are also practical applications of understanding rib count differences between humans and great apes. For instance, orthopedic surgeons need to be aware of anatomical variations when performing procedures involving the thoracic cage area. A better comprehension of these differences will lead to improved surgical outcomes and fewer complications.

In summary, the number of ribs in great apes varies across different species with no clear explanation for this variability.

Future research should focus on exploring possible evolutionary drivers behind these differences while highlighting potential clinical implications for medical professionals who encounter patients with variant numbers of ribs.

References And Further Reading

The number of ribs in great apes has been a topic of interest for researchers due to its evolutionary significance. This section aims to provide additional information about the anatomical variation in rib count among great apes.

Firstly, it is important to note that humans typically have 12 pairs of ribs, whereas most other mammals have thirteen pairs. However, some species of great apes such as chimpanzees and gorillas are known to possess an extra pair of ribs.

Chimpanzees often exhibit variability in their rib counts, ranging from twelve to fourteen pairs. On the other hand, gorillas consistently have thirteen pairs of ribs and an additional cervical vertebrae compared to humans.

Secondly, studies show that the presence or absence of these additional ribs may be attributed to genetic mutations within populations. In particular, specific genes related to embryonic development can affect the formation and growth of these structures. The evolution of this trait could potentially offer advantages in terms of respiratory function and body size adaptation.

Thirdly, although great apes share many anatomical similarities with each other, there exists substantial intraspecific variation in rib morphology even within closely related genera like Pan (chimpanzee) and Gorilla. These differences may be influenced by environmental factors such as diet, habitat type, or geographic location.

Lastly, further research should investigate how changes in rib count contribute to functional adaptations across different ape species over time. Understanding the potential benefits or drawbacks associated with variations in anatomy will enable us to better comprehend how organisms evolve and adapt.

Frequently Asked Questions

What Is The Average Weight Of A Great Ape’s Rib Cage?

The rib cage structure of great apes is a fascinating topic in comparative anatomy. The average weight of a great ape’s rib cage provides insight into their evolutionary history and physical adaptations for survival.

Through careful examination, researchers have discovered that the rib cages of great apes are designed to support their large bodies while allowing for flexibility during movement. These structures also play a crucial role in protecting vital organs such as the lungs and heart.

By studying the comparative anatomy of various species of great apes, scientists continue to uncover new insights into the evolution and function of these remarkable creatures.

How Do Great Apes Differ In Rib Count From Other Primates?

Great apes, including chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans, differ from other primates in their rib count. While most primates have 13 pairs of ribs (for a total of 26), great apes typically have an additional pair, bringing their total to 14 pairs (28 ribs).

This difference in rib count is believed to be evolutionarily significant and reflects adaptations for the unique demands placed on great ape bodies. Comparative anatomy studies suggest that this extra pair of ribs evolved independently among different lineages of great apes, indicating its importance in shaping these animals’ morphology over time.

Overall, understanding how great apes differ from other primates in terms of their rib count can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary history and adaptive strategies of these fascinating creatures.

Can Rib Count Be Used To Determine The Age Or Sex Of A Great Ape?

Rib count has been suggested to be a potential indicator of great ape age and sex. However, further research is required to confirm the validity of this hypothesis.

While rib count may correlate with lifespan in some species, such as humans, it is unclear if this extends to great apes.

Additionally, while mating behavior can influence skeletal morphology in some primates, there is currently no evidence that rib count is affected by sexual dimorphism or reproductive strategies in great apes.

Therefore, while rib count remains an interesting area of study for understanding great ape biology, caution must be taken when using it as a sole indicator of individual characteristics.

Have There Been Any Instances Of Great Apes With Abnormal Rib Counts?

Abnormal rib counts in great apes have been reported and can be attributed to genetic mutations. These abnormalities may manifest as additional or fewer ribs than the typical count observed in great apes.

Such variations, however, are rare occurrences and do not necessarily impact an individual’s health or wellbeing.

It is worth noting that rib count alone cannot determine the age or sex of a great ape; rather it should be considered alongside other physical traits and characteristics such as body size, facial features, and reproductive organs.

Overall, while abnormal rib counts exist in great apes due to genetic anomalies, they do not pose significant implications for their overall health and development.

Have There Been Any Studies On The Relationship Between Rib Count And Great Ape Behavior?

Recent research has explored the evolutionary implications of rib count in relation to locomotion among great apes. Some findings suggest that variations in rib count may have played a role in the evolution of bipedalism and other forms of locomotion.

However, more studies are needed to fully understand the relationship between rib count and behavior among different species of great apes. While there is no evidence yet of abnormal rib counts affecting great ape behavior, ongoing research on this topic could shed light on the complex interplay between anatomy, physiology, and primate behavior across evolutionary time scales.


Great apes, including gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans, have an average rib cage weight of around 16-20% of their body weight. While the number of ribs in great apes varies slightly between species, they generally have the same number as humans: 12 pairs or 24 total.

Unlike other primates such as lemurs and monkeys, who may have fewer ribs due to adaptations for climbing trees, great apes are primarily terrestrial animals and do not require these adaptations.

While rib count alone cannot determine age or sex in great apes, it is a useful anatomical feature that can aid in identification and study.

Further research on the relationship between rib count and behavior in great apes could provide valuable insights into their biology and evolution.

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